Observation of the eye

TCM relates certain areas of the eye to specific Zang:

(a) The canthus and the sclera close to the canthus relate to the Heart.
(i) Redness in this area may be a sign of Heat present in the Heart.
(ii) A pale canthus suggests Blood deficiency.
(b) The sclera relates to the Lung.
(i) A yellow sclera is an indication of the presence of Damp-Heat in the interior.
(ii) A very white sclera can indicate the presence of Cold.
(c) The pupil relates to the Kidneys.
Dilated pupils with blurred vision indicate Kidney deficiency.
(d) The iris relates to the Liver.
(e) The upper and lower eyelids relate to the Spleen.
Inflamed eyelids may indicate the presence of Heat in the Spleen.
(f) If the entire eye is red, it may indicate Wind-Heat affecting the Liver.
(g) Dark eyelids indicate Kidney deficiency.
(h) Eyes that are deep in the orbit may indicate Jing deficiency.

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