Observation of the mouth

(a) According to TCM theory, the mouth is related to the Stomach, while the lips refer to the Spleen.
(b) Breathing through an open mouth is usually a sign of deficiency.
(c) Lips:
   (i) Light-red lips are a sign of good health.
  (ii) Deep-red lips indicate the presence of Heat; if they are also dry, it may indicate that Heat is drying Body Fluids.
 (iii) Pale lips indicate deficiency or Cold.
 (iv) A green–blue appearance of the lips may indicate presence of pain and stasis of Qi and/or Blood.

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