Auscultation and Olfaction(Wen, 闻诊)

(1) Auscultation refers to listening to the quality of noises that the patient makes. The practitioner will take note of the tone and volume of the voice, paying attention to the quality, intensity, and frequency of cough or respiratory noises and abdominal noises such as borborygmus and joint movement noises.
(2) Voice:
(a) Loss of voice at the initial stage of a disease is usually an indication of an invasion of the External pathogenic factors Wind and Cold.
(b) A hoarse voice often results from an invasion of the external pathogenic factors Wind-Heat, affecting the Lungs.
(c) A loud voice points to an excess condition, while a low voice indicates deficiency.
(d) Cold conditions usually result in a reluctance to talk; Heat conditions often go with excessive talking.
(3) Respiration:
(a) Loud and strong breathing is a sign of Excess.
(b) Weak, faint breathing is a sign of deficiency.
(c) Shortness of breath may be due to the presence of Phlegm or Qi deficiency.
(4) Cough:
(a) The presence of cough indicates pathology of the Lung.
(b) A loud, productive cough indicates an excess condition. If this cough produces clear, white mucus, it is likely caused by an invasion of External pathogenic Wind-Cold. If the expectoration is yellow or colored, it may indicate the presence of Wind-Heat.
(c) A faint, superficial cough is more likely the result of weakness of the Lung.
(5) Borborygmus (Abdominal noises):
(a) The origin of this noise indicates the location of the disease: Stomach or intestines.
(b) A low sound is more likely a sign of deficiency or fluid retention, while a loud, rumbling sound indicates the presence of Wind, Cold, and Dampness.
(6) Other noises — Vomiting, retching, and hiccups:
The practitioner will try to determine if the condition is of an excess or deficiency nature based on their noise intensity.
(7) Olfaction means that the practitioner will pay attention to the quality of body odors such as breath or transpiration:
(a) Halitosis may be an indication of Stomach Heat.
(b) Transpiration: strong-smelling transpiration may be an indication of Internal Heat, potentially complicated by Dampness. A sticky perspiration with a fishy odor is due to Wind-Dampness.
(c) Excretions (Stools and Urine): a strong, offensive odor indicates Heat; a faint, weak smell may indicate Cold.
(d) Vaginal discharge and menstrual blood:
An offensive odor is caused by Heat; A fishy odor, by Cold.

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